Articles

The revolution of the king and the people

The Revolution of the Shah and the People – On February 26, 1972, the six charters of the Revolution of the Shah and the nation were put to a referendum, and the people of Iran went to the polls with unparalleled enthusiasm and answered yes to all these questions. On this day, Iranian women voted for the first time. The people of Iran, by an overwhelming majority, approved the six charters of the Shah’s revolution and the people with more than five million and five hundred thousand votes. The revolution of the king and the nation was won on the 6th of Bahman 1341 by the vote of the Iranian people. His Majesty Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi sent a radio message to the Iranian nation on February 29, after the victory of the Shah’s revolution and the nation. [1] The emperor added twelve other principles to the charter of the Shah and the people’s revolution, also called the White Revolution, which included the welfare of the people and the progress of the country. Homayouni’s order to implement the six principles of the Shah and the people’s revolution was issued on February 30 , 1972.[2] .

In commemoration of the beginning of the second decade of the Shah’s revolution and the people, the emperor in his speech on February 1 to 4, 1351 [3] in his speech, the emperor gave new instructions and instructions on the way to advancing and completing the Iranian revolution. Will take, they announced.

The beginning of the revolution of the king and the people dates back to 1329, when by royal decree the royal property [4] was divided among the farmers. Opposition and struggle against the division of lands among farmers was organized by Mohammad Mossadegh, one of the largest feudal lords of Iran [5] during his presidency, with the support of the National Front and the Tudeh Party. These objections were raised by Mossadegh to such an extent that Mossadegh confiscated the royal property so that the division of land in Iran would no longer take place. After the overthrow of Mossadegh, Emperor Aria Mehr pursued a plan of land reform and the abolition of the lord-servant regime [6] with his firm will. With the passage of the Law on the Sale of NetworksAnd its distribution among farmers began in 1334, the second phase of land reform. The third stage of land reform was incorporated into a broad program of social and economic reform, or the revolution of the Shah and the people, also called the White Revolution. The Charter of the Six Articles of the Shah and the People’s revolution overthrew the social, political and economic principles of Iran overnight. This charter includes land reform (Phase III), nationalization of forests and pastures, sale of shares in state-owned factories in support of land reform, workers’ share of factory profits, reform of Iran’s election law to give women the right to vote, and equal political rights. Men to Iranian women and the creation of the Knowledge Corps. Opposition to the Shah and the people’s revolution was organized by Hojjatoleslam Ruhollah Khomeini with the support of the National Front and the Tudeh Party , which led to the disgraceful day of June 6, 1942 . With approvalLaw on the Procedure for Consideration and Termination of Land Reform Cases by the National Assembly on June 28, 1975 and by the Senate on July 14, 1975 The property was completed and the relevant samples were given to the notaries and no complaints or objections were received against them.

Emperor of Iran Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr, one of the greatest human rights activists, according to the Iranian Constitution [7] and with a referendum in which the Iranian people approved the Six Charter of the Shah and the people, with the then Prime Ministers Dr. Ali Amini, Assadollah Alam, Hassan Ali Mansour And Amir Abbas Hoveyda overnight brought about a radical transformation throughout Iran.

By carrying out the Shah’s revolution and the people, the emperor created a new and modern economic and social structure for Iran and uprooted the framework of the serf or feudal lord, and of the peasants or servants of the owners that none! They did not, the farmers became owners and liberators, and they divided the agricultural lands of Iran among them. The emperor also relied on the twenty-sixth principle of the constitutional amendment, which states that the powers of the state come from the nation, the manner in which those powers are used is determined by the constitution, and said that Iranian women are part of the Iranian nation Twenty-sixth is a constitutional amendment. His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Emperor of Iran, gave the right to vote to half of the population of Iran, ie Iranian women, to participate in determining their own destiny. By giving Iranian women the right to vote and equal political, economic, and social rights with Iranian men, Iranian women gained the same rights that women in Western countries had fought for for centuries. The emperor implemented the modern education system and industrialization of Iran with the revolution of the Shah and the people in the country. In the first stage, the White Revolution included six principles that Shah Aria Mehr presented to the farmers and the nation at the National Congress of Farmers in Tehran on January 10, 1972, announcing reforms and a referendum to accept or reject it. On the dayFebruary 26, 1972 In a nationwide referendum, the amendments were voted in favor.

Background

Assignment of royal property to farmers February 28, 1980

More than 4,800 farmers from across the country at the Congress of Rural Cooperatives

Women farmers from all over the country at the Congress of Rural Cooperatives

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The revolution of the king and the people

Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi gives ownership of divided lands to farmers

Prior to land reform, 50 percent of agricultural land was owned by large landowners. 20% belonged to the endowments and was in the hands of the clergy, and 10% of government lands and 20% belonged to farmers. The land reform program proceeded in three stages. With the return of the royal property to the ownership of the emperor in 1327, the emperor Aria Mehr began to divide the royal property from the lands of Varamin and the surrounding villages.

The land reform program had two major opponents: the large landowners, and the other was the clergy and religious endowments, who owned 70% of the agricultural land, those who had amassed wealth through the reach of farmers. The first opposition to land reform by Mohammad Mossadegh Qajar, himself one of the ten great landownersIt was Iran, it was organized. Mossadegh, with the powers of the National Assembly of the 17th legislature, passed and implemented his bills, writing a bill to increase the share of farmers against the division of land in such a way that land ownership remained in the hands of large landowners. Until then, the big landowner would have earned 100% of the property, but with this bill, Mohammad Mossadegh increased the landlords’ share to 80%, reduced the farmer’s share to 10%, and increased the other 10% to turn the countryside and build a mosque, etc. کرد. With the division of lands promoted by the emperor, ownership was given to the farmer and 100% interest was given to the farmer. Mohammad Mossadegh used all his political means to try to destroy the emperor’s land reform program. Mohammad Mossadegh used another trick to oust the court minister, Hussein Alaa, who was in charge of planning the land reform, and confiscated the royal property and palaces with his authority on August 1, 1943. After the overthrow of Mohammad Mossadegh by the Iranian people On August 19 , 1943 , the country’s land and civil reforms continued. [9] On his birthday, November 25, 1943, His Highness Homayoun Shah Aria Mehr summoned 1,600 farmers to the Marble Palace and gave them the title deed of the lands they were working on.

Distribution of net land among farmers

Following the division of the royal estates, the government was commissioned by the emperor to prepare and enforce the law of the sale of net worth, [10] especially agricultural net to farmers. The government of Hussein Alaa passed the law on the sale of pure goods to the National Assembly and the Senate, and this law was approved by the National Assembly in a meeting on November 21, 1954, and approved by the Senate on December 20, 1963. The law on the sale of net worth contains 13 articles and 29 notes. Article 1 of this law states: According to the provisions of this law, the Ministry of Agriculture is obliged to sell all the resources, including villages, farms, lands, canals, barren lands, real estate and buildings that are the definite property of the government, except pastures and natural forests. As well as the properties, buildings and real estate that are needed by government organizations and the list will be notified to the relevant parliamentary commissions.

In the Law on the Sale of Government Networks, the type and characteristics of land and buildings and the duties of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Agriculture were clarified separately. Government land within the cities and continuously to the cities was prepared for sale to government employees, and agricultural land was prepared for sale to the farmers who cultivated the land themselves. Farmers have to pay the price of ten to fifteen hectares of pure land in installments for twenty years. The distribution of pure land among farmers was done according to the law and the executive regulations of the law of sale of pure water [11] and 57767 hectares of pure land were given to 7081 farmers.

The division of royal estates and the sale of pure lands were valuable steps taken towards the freedom of labor and the efforts of the Iranian peasantry, and the first step in eliminating the feudal regime and large estates in Iran was the beginning of fundamental changes in Iranian society and economy.

Land reform

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The third anniversary of the revolution of the king and the people

In 1958, His Majesty Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Aria Mehr, Emperor of Iran, decided to undertake social and economic reforms . It was clear that the passage of such a law was opposed by the landlords and the clergy.

In the early 1960s, an amended version of the land reform was approved by the National Assembly, whose majority consisted of owners. The owners manipulated the law so much that it only benefited the landowners. Under the law, each owner could keep up to 400 hectares of irrigated land or 800 hectares of rainfed land. Overall, the House envisioned ways to prevent land reform from being implemented properly and advocated for landlord interests.

On November 15, 1940, Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi issued a decree announcing the new land reform program, and the government of Dr. Ali Amini undertook to implement it. Dr. Amini appointed Hassan Arsanjani to the Ministry of Agriculture to update the land reform bill that had been worked on since Dr. Iqbal. Arsanjani wrote in the bill that each owner can only own one village. Anything more than that should be sold to the government. The government then sells the land cheaply to farmers, and the government gives very cheap loans to farmers to buy it. The goal of land reform and the abolition of the landlord regime was to create a class of independent farmers. The first land reform plan sought to limit the ownership of the owners’ agricultural land so that it could be sold immediately to the peasants who cultivate the land. [12]

On January 10, 1962, Dr. Amini’s cabinet approved the decree of His Highness Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr to dismantle the serfdom system in Iran. Dr. Amini visited Khomeini in Qom so that he might be able to convince the clergy of these reforms. Khomeini denounced Dr. Amini’s prime ministerial record that Amini’s policy in governance is completely wrong, that education in primary and secondary schools is completely wrong, and that only infidels are expelled. After Khomeini’s objections, His Highness Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr said: “Now you have removed the mask on your face. These black reactionaries are worse than the Red Revolutionaries.”

Engineer Shahpour Malek Abedi was killed by the feudal lords of Fars province

Azerbaijani farmers own agricultural land

On July 19, 1962, Dr. Amini resigned as Prime Minister and Assadollah Alam became Prime Minister. Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr in a meeting with the Cabinet of Science said that we can implement these reforms only if and only if the majority of the people agree with it and with a referendum we can advance land reform . On January 10, 1963, Emperor Aria Mehr inaugurated the National Congress of Farmers with his speech. 4,200 representatives of cooperatives and farmers attended the congress. The emperor read out the six principles of reform at this congress and announced that the six-point charter would be put to a vote. The emperor was greeted by the cheers of the people in Congress. The emperor said “Nothing more than what we are doing today, such as freeing the captive and miserable subjects of Iran from the shackles of captivity and owning the 15 million population of this country in the land where they work, will be pleasing to God and the Imams.” “Nothing is more God-pleasing than social justice and the elimination of oppression . ”

The rebellion of the great landlords and the clergy provoked a revolt because the clergy themselves were among the great landlords and had fallen on the endowments with their teeth and claws. The clerics, who staunchly opposed the emperor’s six-point charter, stoned to death in their pulpits on the pretext that farmers would not have the capital and ability to manage their land with land reform and would eventually sell the land to former lords.

November 13, 1972 Engineer Malek Abedi, head of the Firoozabad Land Reform Organization in Fars province, was killed by a number of large Iranian landowners. [13] After learning of this bloody event, Prime Minister Assadullah Alam said that the government’s firm decision to implement land reform and abolish the landlord regime would not be shaken by such criminal acts and provocations.

On February 26, 1972, a referendum was held in Iran, which led to the approval of the six charters of the Shah and the people by the people. 5,598,711 for the Shah and the people’s revolution and 521,108 against the charter of the king and the people cast their ballots. [14] For the first time in the history of Iran, women also went to the polls. Women cast their ballots in 16,433 in Tehran and 300,000 in other cities. [15]

Land reform was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, it was decided that no owner should have more than one tenth, the surplus of lands and tens should be sold to the peasants who cultivated on those lands, and by selling the shares of state-owned factories, the land was reimbursed to the owners.

In the second stage, landlords must either distribute rental income or sell the land to farmers under lease agreements. In other words, landlords must either lease their agricultural property to farmers for thirty years or sell the land with a bad agreement. Thus the maximum ownership of the lands in the hands of one owner was greatly reduced. Public endowment property was also leased to farmers for 99 years based on the income from that land. In the case of special endowments, trustees were forced to sell them to the government and distribute them among farmers.

In the third stage, the landlords who had leased their property were forced to sell it to farmers under the Reform Law, which was carried out on the basis of the owner and farmer’s satisfaction or the division in proportion to the customary property interest on the site. Thus, all Iranian farmers became landowners, and Iran moved from a backward feudal country to a country with free agriculture and industrialization. [16] [17]

Principles of the White Revolution

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Ali Amini and Arsanjani, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi gives the ownership of the lands in Kermanshah to the farmers

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi gives the land ownership document to the farmers

Women march in support of the fifth principle of the White Revolution

Iranian women are voting for the first time

Women go to the polls in 1341

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Women vote in a girls’ high school 1341

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The emperor’s radio message after the approval of the six bills of the Shah’s revolution and the people on February 29, 1972

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Speech of the emperor in the blue gathering of more than fifteen thousand Iranian women in front of the Marble Palace March 29, 1982

The emperor gives ownership documents to the farmers of Isfahan in Chehelston Palace

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Remarks of the emperor on the day of sending the first period of the Knowledge Corps to the villages

Parade of girls of the Army of Knowledge in front of the Senate

Extension and Development Corps is building a school in northern Iran, 1973

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Tehran, celebration and parade of the anniversary of the Shah’s revolution and the people of 2536 Imperial

Second development plan and establishment of a factory for industrial machines

Hoveyda and the Cabinet of 1974

Oil revenues are allocated to development programs

The six principles of the first White Revolution that His Highness Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr introduced in the winter of 1341 in the Congress of Farmers were as follows: [18] [19]

The first principle – land reform and the abolition of the master-slave regime

It is a fundamental change in the amount and manner of land ownership, especially agricultural land and pastures in order to increase the general productivity of society. Land reform in the country was achieved through the efforts of His Highness Homayoun Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Aria Mehr and the Prime Ministers Dr. Ali Amini and Assadollah Alam. The Land Reform Law and then the Land Reform Law Amendment Law were implemented in three stages. [20]

With the beginning of the country’s modernization movement, decisions had to be made on peasant issues as well. The emperor believed that the Iranian peasant should own the land on which he cultivated, and also believed that fundamental change in Iranian society would be impossible without the active participation of the peasants. During the land division, not only did the farmers own the land on which they worked, but in each village where the division took place, a cooperative was established to dig deep wells and provide water, seeds, fertilizer, and other farmers’ necessities. On the other hand, cooperatives sent villagers abroad who were ready to learn and become acquainted with the new method of agriculture and to work with new agricultural machines and tools. [21]

Principle 2 – Nationalization of forests and pastures

The forests of Iran, which have been called green gold mines, became the national pastures of the country, and with this, about 120 million hectares of the country’s forests and pastures were given to the government for national exploitation. Artificial forests were created in an area of ​​about 28,000 hectares. More than 5,000 hectares of green space were created around large cities or countless forest parks in different parts of the country. Extensive programs were implemented in Iran to revitalize forest resources and protect the soil, control quicksand, prevent dams from filling up, prevent desert development, and repel it through desert planting in Iran. [22]

Principle 3 – Sale of shares in state-owned enterprises in support of land reform

This principle was introduced as the third principle of the revolution to provide the necessary capital to repurchase the property of the owners and to provide the purchased lands to the farmers, so that a land reform program could be carried out through the income from the sale of shares in state-owned factories. [23]

By implementing this principle, except for the national and nationalized industries such as railways, power, weapons, etc., which remained in state ownership, 55 factories of sugar, sugarcane, weaving, wood, cement, food, cotton, silk weaving, etc., which companies The shares were returned and they formed the Iranian Factories Joint Stock Company, the shares of which were sold by the Agricultural Bank. This work or the privatization of Iranian state-owned factories made it possible for all middle- and low-income people to buy it, and a large portion of state-owned factories were sold to the public. [24]

Principle 4 – Share workers’ profits in factories

According to this principle, workers and employers share in the net profits of industrial units through their unions, and on the basis of collective agreements of workers, without government intervention. In 1977, five hundred and thirty thousand (530,000) private and public sector workers were able to earn a profit of twelve billion rials, which for each of them meant one to two months of extra wages. Iranian workers accounted for 20% of factory profits. In the course of these developments , the Workers’ Welfare Bank helps workers to form cooperatives by providing loans with a 4% interest rate. Labor law pursues three policies: employment, wages, and productivity. [25] The implementation of this principle not only prevented the creation of class distance and the establishment of healthy and constructive relations between different social groups, but also made workers value the workplace as their home and industrial machinery as their children and be encouraged to work harder. National production increased with more quality. [26]

Principle 5 – Amend the Iranian election law to give women the right to vote and equal political rights with men

According to Article 10 of the Pre-Revolutionary Elections Law of the Shah and the People, women were lunatics, bankrupts, beggars, and convicts of justice, and were deprived of any political rights. The fifth principle, accompanied by a series of reforms known as the liberation of Iranian women, began with the discovery of the hijab of Iranian women on January 8, 1963, by order of Reza Shah . On this day, Reza Shah went to Tarbiat Moallem University with the Queen Pahlavi and his two daughters Shams and Ashraf without hijab. After that, on February 26, 1972, the election law was changed and one of its achievements was the participation of women in elections in equal legal terms with men. Women, like men, were able to play an important role in determining their own destiny for the first time, gaining the right to vote and the right to be elected. Following the right to vote on April 17, 1963 , the Family Protection LawWas approved. The law abolished unilateral divorce, strictly permitted polygamy, and allowed women to file for divorce. For the custody of the child was also considered the mother, the children were left to the mother after the separation of the parents or the death of the father and to the uncle and grandfather. Other achievements were made in the election laws and the writing of the law, namely the formation of provincial and city associations, city and ten associations and the law of the trade union system and the establishment of education and health councils, which were achieved directly or indirectly. [27]

Principle 6 – Establishment of the Knowledge Corps to facilitate the implementation of the law on public and compulsory education

In order to spread literacy and culture in the villages, in February 1972, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi proposed and founded the Knowledge Corps , and in 1342, he began his work as the prime minister of Assadollah Alam. At that time, Iran had a population of 22 million, 75% of whom lived in rural areas and were mostly illiterate. In addition, educational facilities were unbalanced between cities and villages, with 24% of teachers teaching in rural areas and 76% in urban areas, meaning that only a quarter of teachers belonged to 75% of the rural population, and urban teachers were interested in They did not have to go to the villages. In such circumstances, the formation of the Knowledge Corps could have paved the way. According to this principle, it was decided that young graduates who want to serve in the army should be sent to the villages by passing a training course and learning the method of teaching children and adults. [28]

The Knowledge Corps was able to serve twenty-eight boys and eighteen girls in the IRGC until 1978, when their number reached more than one hundred thousand. Many of these girls and boys were hired by the Ministry of Education after completing their military service and continued their internships. Others served the government in running the House of Justice . According to the 1977 statistics of the Program and Budget Organization of the Statistics Center of Iran, in the villages of the country alone, the number of students in Sepah-e-Danesh schools increased by 692% in the dam over the past 15 years. Elderly and 12,000 elderly women learned to read and write. [29] Within 7 years of the implementation of this principle, more than 3,000 schools were built throughout Iran. [30]

The plans of the six principles of the revolution were feasible and in accordance with the beliefs, traditions and needs of the Iranians and the economic and social necessities of the time. Then, as the national economy developed and Iranian society evolved, and according to the new needs and requirements, the first six principles were completed by adding thirteen more principles:

Principle 7 – Establishment of the Health Corps

During Assadollah’s tenure as prime minister, the seventh principle was realized. The men and women of the Health Corps were responsible for the equitable distribution of physicians and medical services in the country. Iranian boys and girls have diplomas, bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees, and those with doctoral degrees in either medical or other disciplines who must serve under the flag, after a four-month internship between the three corps of knowledge , the corps of health , and The Extension and Development Corps is divided. [31]

Principle 8 – Establishment of the Extension and Development Corps

The law on the formation of the Extension and Development Corps was approved by the National Assembly on October 13, 1964, during the time of Prime Minister Hassan Ali Mansour. This corps is one of the young scientific and technical experts of the country, such as engineers in the fields of agriculture, construction, road construction, electricity and mechanics, and other graduates of technical and engineering fields who spend part of their service under the flag in the country’s villages and try to raise them. The standard of living of the villagers is to acquaint them with modern agricultural methods, to help increase livestock and agricultural production, to expand and improve rural industries, to guide the villagers about the development and modernization of villages. [32]

Principle 9 – Establishment of houses of justice and arbitration councils

Rural courts were told that it was established during the prime ministership of Assadullah Alam within the framework of the Shah and the people’s revolution . Houses of justice and arbitration councils showed a new face of justice to the people of the country. With the establishment of houses of justice, instead of a villager going to cities near and far to get his rights, the judiciary came to him. The houses of justice provided justice to the villagers free of charge, giving them a chance to participate in their judicial work. The Knowledge Corps served in every village and place, was the secretary of the houses of justice. Based on the House of Justice model, arbitration councils began to function during the prime ministership of Amir Abbas Hoveyda in 1345, meaning that courts were selected by the residents of each neighborhood and city to handle small and local disputes. [33]

Principle 10 – Nationalization of the country’s waters

Another principle for the protection of Iran’s natural wealth or the tenth principle of the Shah’s revolution and the people, the nationalization of the country’s waters on land and underground throughout the country was approved and realized in August 1347 and the term of Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda. This principle was announced to expand water resources and prevent its wastage and find a uniform policy in the use of the country’s water resources. According to this principle , Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi declared all the waters of the country, lakes, rivers, streams, atmospheres, valleys, ponds, springs, mineral waters and groundwater as national wealth. The protection of groundwater resources and reserves and supervision in all matters related to it was entrusted to the Ministry of Water and Electricity. [34]

Principle 11 – Renovation of cities and villages with the help of the Extension and Development Corps : This principle was approved in 1977 and implemented throughout the country under the supervision of Prime Minister Jamshid Amoozgar. This principle practically covers urban and rural renovation. With the rapid expansion of Iran’s economy, it caused cities to expand uncontrollably. According to this law, renovation and development projects in Tehran and 72 other cities, water and electricity supply, housing, health, construction of roads, creation of parks, parking lots, squares, and their maintenance, etc. became the duties of municipalities. In the villages, the village infrastructure was also determined. Thus, urban and rural modernization of two parallel disciplines came from a single effort in the reconstruction of the country’s image. The projects were approved by the Supreme Urban Planning Council in the Ministry of Development and Housing. [35]

Principle 12 – Administrative Revolution and Educational Revolution

This principle was based on the expansion of the quantity of education with fundamental changes in the quality of administrative and educational education. In August 1347, this principle was first discussed in the Ramsar Educational Conference under the direct supervision of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda. Twelve Principles of the Ramsar Educational Conference CharterIt was planned according to the economic and social needs of the country. According to this charter, the provision of manpower with knowledge and expertise in various fields of industry, culture, etc. must be nurtured with Iranian roots and values. The announcement of the administrative and educational revolution, which was based on the full expansion of literacy and expertise in Iran. Statistics from the Statistics Center of Iran, the Program and Budget Organization, show that during the White Revolution, the number of majors increased from seventy-five (75) to fifteen (552). In 1976, 22 of the total population of the country were covered by various levels of education. [36]

Principle 13 – Sale of shares to workers of large industrial units or the law on the expansion of ownership of production units

In the summer of 1975, the thirteenth principle of the Shah and the people revolution or the expansion of ownership of industrial and production units was approved and realized under the supervision of Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda. Private and public industrial and production units, five years after their opening, have to transform their status into public companies and sell up to 49% of the shares of private units first to the workers and employees of the same unit and then to other people. Public sector industrial units also pledged to sell 99% of their shares, thus owning production and industrial units through workers’ shares .Spread it among all and let all people participate in the development of the national economy. “In the implementation of this principle, until 1355, 533 dams and production units of the country were given to more than 163,000 workers and farmers, and in 1357, statistics show that a total of 320 large production units 49% of the shares in the dam to workers and Other people in the country have sold out. In the labor system and factory management of Iran, within the framework of this principle, the worker is both the owner and works for himself. “When a worker is an owner, he does not allow most of the conflicts and colonial political motives to take hold.” [37] [38] .

Principle Fourteen – Fighting Inflation and Over-Selling and Defending Consumer Interests

Principle 15 – Free and compulsory education

According to this principle, education in educational institutions across the country became free. Universities, high schools, elementary schools, day and night students, students of anti-illiteracy classes, students of literacy classes of vocational schools and universities, adult education courses, the Department of Education, Iranian schools abroad. According to this principle, pupils and students could benefit from full free education in return for their commitment to serve the government. Statistics of the Program and Budget Organization In 1977, the number of students in universities and colleges was close to 200,000 and abroad 100,000. Many overseas students were on government scholarships. Students in the country benefited from scholarships. For students who went to university in their hometown, 350 tomans per month and for students whose university location was different from their hometowns, 550 tomans were given scholarships.[39]

Principle 16 – Free feeding for young children in schools and free feeding of infants up to the age of two with mothers

Free nutrition for young children in schools and free nutrition for infants up to the age of two with mothers was announced in 1976, according to which the country’s students received free nutrition. More than 6 million students benefited in the 1355 school year by giving a daily meal during the morning school hours in which milk, biscuits and carefully calculated calories. Infants and their mothers also benefited from free nutrition, which was promoted and implemented by the Red Lion and Sun Society of Iran , the Imperial Social Services Organization , and the Mothers and Babies Support Agency . He was responsible for the implementation of the first department of the Ministry of Education. [40] [41]

Principle 17 – Social insurance coverage for all Iranians

This principle was implemented during the prime ministership of Amir Abbas Hoveyda in Iran and is based on public insurance and providing a retirement period for all Iranians, especially Iranian villagers. Social insurance and cooperatives are the two basic foundations for meeting the needs of the Iranian community. The purpose of the seventeenth principle is that every Iranian is covered by social insurance in all periods of his life and is provided for the rest of his life and will never be in need. The Insurance and Social Security Act covers accident, sickness, old age, disability, disability, sick pay, and marriage insurance, and is the most advanced law in the universe. Retirement to the dam in the dam The last salary and health insurance without restrictions on patients and the length of treatment and its cost, and if treatment of the disease is not possible in Iran, social insurance will cover the cost of sending the insured abroad. The emergency network project was implemented in cities and villages, and since it was not possible to build a well-equipped hospital in each village, arrangements were made to transport the patient by helicopter to the nearest hospital in the shortest possible time. A drug project was also launched to access the drug.[42]

Principle 18 – Combating the speculative transactions of land and real estate– On the 26th of August, 2536, the royal decree of Shah Aria Mehr was issued in order to prevent the increase of the price of houses and residential apartments. Since the unreasonable increase in land prices in recent years has not only led to higher building and rental prices, but has also led to an unfair distribution of income, unrelated to actual productive activities, hence the relative stabilization of land prices as the eighteenth principle of the Shah’s revolution. We declare the nation. Within three years, the government is obliged to arrange for a relative increase in the price of land each year to exceed the maximum annual inflation rate by combating general inflation and adopting special tax measures and other necessary measures, such as the use of land owned by the government. Do not exceed and invest in productive fields to replace the stagnation of capital on earth.

Principle 19 – Fight against corruption and bribery– On August 17, 2536, the decree of Emperor Aria Mehr was issued. Considering that the use of position and job position for personal benefit is rejected in our society and all the efforts of government officials should be used for the benefit of society, hence the need to clarify the assets of the holders of such positions as The nineteenth principle of the revolution of the king and the nation We declare and decree that ministers, governors, high-ranking judges, ambassadors, deputies and general managers of ministries, heads and members of boards and executive boards of government and government-affiliated institutions and companies and first-class mayors at certain times Declare all their assets and those of their spouse and dependent children. Those portions of assets that are in the form of shares of companies and banks and the like must be converted into government bonds during the tenure of the said authorities or managed by banks and investment companies or similar institutions to be designated by the government. In implementing this principle, the government will obtain the necessary legal permits.

According to this principle, all the efforts of government officials should be used for the benefit of society. Heads of government and all government employees must use their power impartially during their tenure and occupy their full interests and serve their social and national mission by giving up their personal interests. Therefore, it is necessary to use every worthy member of society without distinction and discrimination to serve in various jobs and government organizations. In the case of high-ranking government officials, they must declare their wealth so that they can not amass wealth, and eventually their time must be devoted to serving the country. [43]

Country development plans

Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi allocates oil revenue to the second development plan 1341

Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi opens the BCG inoculation center in 1333

In 1327, the National Assembly passed a law establishing an independent organization for the country’s development programs, which was renamed the Program Organization. [44] Five development programs have been planned since 1328 for the development of Iran. From the third development plan, the implementation of which began in 1341, close development plans were designed and implemented with the goals of the principles of the Shah’s revolution and the people. The development plans of the country in different periods were as follows: [45]

  • First Development Plan 1327 – 1333  : To implement this plan, Iran requested a $ 250 million loan from the World Bank and the bank rejected it. With the nationalization of oil, the implementation of the first development plan was stopped and there were no more budgets for the plan. [46]
  • Second Development Plan 1334 – 1340  : It was planned in the Program and Budget Organization headed by Abolhassan Ebtehaj. For the first time, the country’s resources were considered for the country’s economic growth. The program was budgeted at $ 0.9 billion. 60% of oil revenue was allocated at the beginning of the program and then 80% of oil revenue was allocated to the country’s development. $ 250 million was borrowed from other countries to implement the program. The purpose of this program is the development of Khuzestan province, which was selected as a model province, and 7.% of oil revenues were spent on the development of Khuzestan province. [47] In this program, Dez Dam was built. In three aspects, agriculture, irrigation and mineral resources of Iran were considered together for the economic development of the country. [48]
  • Third Development Plan 1341 – 1346  : A budget of $ 2.7 billion was allocated for the implementation of the third development plan. [49] . The program was planned for the next five years. Dedicated projects were planned by the relevant ministry and no longer focused on the PBO. The government budget was determined by the Program and Budget Organization, which was directly under the Prime Minister. The main goals of this program were to expand the education system, expand agriculture and industry, and land reform. [50]
  • Fourth Development Plan 1347 – 1351  : A budget of 6.7 billion dollars was allocated for the implementation of the fourth development plan. Economic growth reached 15% per year, equal to that of Singapore and South Korea. [51]
  • The fifth development plan 1352 – 1356  :. A budget of $ 55 billion was allocated for the implementation of the Fifth Development Plan. Planned economic growth was projected to exceed 26%. From 1341 to 1356, the gross national income increased thirteen times and the per capita income increased eight times. [52]
  • Sixth development plan planned for the years 1357 to 1361: Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in ​​his book Towards a Great Civilization promises his nation a great civilization based on the Charter of the Shah and the people’s revolution that by 1990 AD is equal to 1370 solar years. , The Iranian nation will have the same standards of social welfare and standard of living and progress as Europe in 1978, and the Iranian nation will be equal to France, Britain and Italy by 2000, equal to 1380 solar in industrial development and social welfare. In this book, he says that a program called Iran Economic and Social Outlook, 2531-2551 was designed and established to achieve the goals of the great civilization . [53]

Gholamreza Afkhami writes in the book The Life of the Shah ” In the context of the White Revolution and its nineteen-article charter and development plans, the face of Iran changed and brought Iran to the gates of a great civilization that could be equal to European industrialized countries in economic and social welfare .” [54]

Organizations and populations

Other organizations and communities also participated in the implementation and development of the principles of the Charter of the Revolution. Most of these organizations were born during the White Revolution. One of the oldest and most important of them is the following organizations [55] . [56]

Other active organizations:

Welfare and Educational Society Farah Pahlavi, Queen Pahlavi Foundation, Shams Pahlavi Charitable Foundation, Ashraf Pahlavi Foundation, National Welfare Organs for the Blind and Deaf, National Family Welfare Organization, National Rehabilitation Association of Iran, National Association for Child Support , Orphan Support Society, Support Society Deaf and Dumb Children, National Association for the Support of the Disabled, Leprosy Relief Society, Disabled Support Society , National Cancer Society, National Blood Transfusion Organization, Ministry of Health and Welfare

Riots of Islamists and Islamic communists and Marxists of colonial mercenaries

Khomeini without a cloak and turban in Turkey

The mullahs of Dastarband, who were themselves the great landowners of Iran [57] , in order to prevent the division of agricultural lands among the farmers of Iran, called the plans of the Shah’s revolution and the people contrary to the foundations of Islamic law. One of the most reactionary opponents was Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini Hindizadeh, who called the referendum “illegitimate” and boycotted it. On March 31, 1972, in a letter to His Majesty Homayoun Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, he protested against giving women the right to vote, calling it against the principles of the Qur’an. [58]

The protest statements of some clerics, especially Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini’s mobilizing speeches against giving women the right to vote, provoked the reactionaries. These protests eventually led to street clashes in Tehran, Varamin and Qom.

On April 23, 1942, soldiers at the Faizieh School in Qom disbanded a pro-Khomeini rebel community. On the infamous day of June 6, 1942 , law enforcement officers in Qom arrested Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini and brought him to Tehran. [59]

After Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini’s speech in Qom on November 25, 1964, against the passage of a law allowing American advisers in Iran to use the immunities and exemptions of the Vienna Convention , written in the second paragraph of the Vienna Convention, which Khomeini called capitulation [60] and incited the people against the government. An arrest warrant was issued for Khomeini. During the time of General Hassan Pakravan , the then head of SAVAK, Khomeini was deported to Turkey on November 4, 1964. [61] Since this year, Khomeini, under the auspices of the Iranian Student Confederation, has collaborated with the National Front and the Freedom Movement and other terrorist groups trained in Palestine, Libya, Cuba, the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea .They gathered abroad and set fire to the Iranian Empire in 2537, set fire to Iranian cinemas and government buildings, and on August 19, the anniversary of the overthrow of Mohammad Mossadegh, [62] the foreign Qajar Mongol Prime Minister, in the city of Abadan. They caused one of the greatest human catastrophes and burned more than 400 guests of Rex Abadan cinema alive. [63] . Again Khomeini and the Mojahedin and the People’s Fedayeen guerrillas and other terrorist groups [64]People were invited to gather in Jaleh Square in Tehran. Palestinian snipers and Confederate terrorists fired on army soldiers and the Iranian people from the rooftops of houses around Jaleh Square. With the help of foreign radio stations such as the BBC London, which led and organized the protests in Iran, the US President and the President of France and the Chancellor of West Germany and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom finally met on Guadeloupe to show their support for Khomeini. Who was living in Nouvel Le Chateau, France at the time, they said. With the tricks of foreign governments and the unrest of the colonial leaders in Iran, finally on the 22nd of Bahman, 2537, the imperial terrorist groups of the same counter-revolution [65] as with the Constitutional Revolution [66]They organized and collaborated with the Shah’s revolution and the people in overthrowing the constitutional monarchy in Iran. [67] From this day on, the execution of the Iranian people and the plunder of national and popular wealth in Iran began and continues to this day.

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